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In 1974, a new, more robust suite of communications protocols was proposed and implemented throughout the ARPANET, based upon the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) for end-to-end network communication.But it seemed like overkill for the intermediate gateways (what we would today call routers) to needlessly have to deal with an end-to-end protocol so in 1978 a new design split responsibilities between a pair of protocols; the new Internet Protocol (IP) for routing packets and device-to-device communication (i.e., host-to-gateway or gateway-to-gateway) and TCP for reliable, end-to-end host communication.

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The fundamental technology that makes the Internet work is called packet switching, a data network in which all components (i.e., hosts and switches) operate independently, eliminating single point-of-failure problems.

In addition, network communication resources appear to be dedicated to individual users but, in fact, statistical multiplexing and an upper limit on the size of a transmitted entity result in fast, economical networks. Department of Defense (Do D) funded experiment to interconnect Do D-funded research sites in the U. The 1967 ACM meeting was also where the initial design for the so-called ARPANET — named for the Do D's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) — was first published by Larry Roberts.

Prior to the 1960s, what little computer communication existed comprised simple text and binary data, carried by the most common telecommunications network technology of the day; namely, circuit switching, the technology of the telephone networks for nearly a hundred years.

Because most data traffic is bursty in nature (i.e., most of the transmissions occur during a very short period of time), circuit switching results in highly inefficient use of network resources.

In 1962, Paul Baran of the Rand Corporation described a robust, efficient, store-and-forward data network in a report for the U. With four nodes by the end of 1969, the ARPANET spanned the continental U. One of the most lasting results of the ARPANET was the development of a user-network protocol that has become the standard interface between users and packet switched networks; namely, ITU-T (formerly CCITT) Recommendation X.25.

This "standard" interface encouraged BBN to start Telenet, a commercial packet-switched data service, in 1974; after much renaming, Telenet became a part of Sprint's X.25 service.While the Internet today is recognized as a network that is fundamentally changing social, political, and economic structures, and in many ways obviating geographic boundaries, this potential is merely the realization of predictions that go back nearly forty years. Licklider of MIT discussed his "Galactic Network" and how social interactions could be enabled through networking.In a series of memos dating back to August 1962, J. The Internet certainly provides such a national and global infrastructure and, in fact, interplanetary Internet communication has already been seriously discussed.Since TCP and IP were originally envisioned functionally as a single protocol, the protocol suite, which actually refers to a large collection of protocols and applications, is usually referred to simply as TCP/IP.The original versions of both TCP and IP that are in common use today were written in September 1981, although both have had several modifications applied to them (in addition, the IP version 6, or IPv6, specification was released in December 1995). While the TCP/IP protocols and the Internet are different, their histories are most definitely intertwingled! For additional information and insight, readers are urged to read two excellent histories of the Internet: Casting The Net: From ARPANET to INTERNET and beyond...

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